It’s been a long time I didn’t update this blog. Because of that I am busy. I’m sorry to all my reader. Actually I took this material from my grammar task. And I would thanks to all my friend especially in my group for our task. Once more, I am sorry if there is a lot of mistake here, I am still learning. In here we learn together. :D
|This is my black bicycle|
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
Types of adjectives
Determiners consist of a small group of structure words without characteristic form.
1. Articles : the, a ,an
2. Demonstrative adjectives
The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences:
When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books.
In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over."
This apartment needs to be fumigated.
Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the sentence.
Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these.
In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the object of the verb "preferred." In the independent clause, "these" is the direct object of the verb "bought."
Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.
3. Possessive adjectives
A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase "my assignment" functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase.
What is your phone number.
Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number"; the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.
The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.
In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of the verb "sold."
After many years, she returned to her homeland.
Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase "her homeland" is the object of the preposition "to." Note also that the form "hers" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
We have lost our way in this wood.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our way" is the direct object of the compound verb "have lost". Note that the possessive pronoun form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.
Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents" is the object of the preposition "by." Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball" is the object of the verb "chased." Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is a contraction for "it is."
4. Numeral adjectives
Cardinal: four, twenty-five, etc.
Ordinal: first, thirty-fourth, three hundredth, etc.
5. Indefinite Adjectives
An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.
The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many people" is the subject of the sentence.
I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury.
The indefinite adjective "any" modifies the noun "mail" and the noun phrase "any mail" is the direct object of the compound verb "will send."
They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound.
In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun "goldfish" and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb "found":
The title of Kelly's favourite game is "All dogs go to heaven."
6. Interrogative Adjectives
An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives):
Which plants should be watered twice a week?
Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which plants" is the subject of the compound verb "should be watered":
What book are you reading?
In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct object of the compound verb "are reading."
These types of adjectives add detail or description to the noun.
[In the following examples, the adjective is bold and the noun is underlined.]
o When Tennessee and Connecticut first met in women's basketball in 1995, it was a nice made-for-TV game between an established power and one on the rise.
o NICE describes the predicate nominative GAME and ESTABLISHED describes the object of the preposition POWER.
o Note: In this sentence, ESTABLISHED is also a participle.
o The tall man thought he could reach the top shelf of the bookcase.
o TALL describes the subject MAN and TOP describes the direct object SHELF.
o After the difficult surgery, the famous doctors to a nap.
o DIFFICULT modifies the object of the preposition SURGERY and FAMOUS describes the subject DOCTOR.
o A worthwhile rivalry had been born.
o WORTHWHILE describes the subject RIVALRY.
o Monica said, "Wow, this is a great game."
o GREAT describes the predicate nominative GAME.
Function of adjectives
1. Adjective to modify a noun
The beautiful girl (preceded noun)
Those girls are naughty (following noun)
2. Adjectives modifying a pronoun
She is Chinese
I am Moslem
Position of adjectives
a. Adjectives preceding
Determines, descriptive adjective and noun adjuncts appear before a noun. The determiners precede the descriptive adjectives.
--> A beautiful girl.
b. After the linking verbs "to be", "to seem", "to look", "to taste":
--> The girl is beautiful.
--> You look tired.
--> This meat tastes funny.
c. After the noun
in some fixed expressions
--> The Princess Royal
--> The President elect
d. The adjectives involved, present, concerned :
--> I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people who have something to do with the matter)
--> Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in the building or at the meeting)
f. Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have a different meaning:
--> An involved discussion = detailed, complex
Sequence of adjective
In many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order. Generally, the adjective order in English is:
1. determiner; article or pronouns used as adjectives
8. proper adjective (often nationality or other place of origin)
9. purpose or qualifier
A given occurrence of an adjective can generally be classified into one of four kinds of uses:
• Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: "I saw three happy kids", and "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee."
• Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy."
• Absolute adjectives do not belong to a larger construction (aside from a larger adjective phrase), and typically modify either the subject of a sentence or whatever noun or pronoun they are closest to; for example, happy is an absolute adjective in "The boy, happy with his lollipop, did not look where he was going."
• Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. One way this can happen is if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind. In the sentence, "I read two books to them; he preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy", happy is a nominal adjective, short for "happy one" or "happy book". Another way this can happen is in phrases like "out with the old, in with the new", where "the old" means, "that which is old" or "all that is old", and similarly with "the new". In such cases, the adjective functions either as a mass noun (as in the preceding example) or as a plural count noun, as in "The meek shall inherit the Earth", where "the meek" means "those who are meek" or "all who are meek".
Degrees of adjectives
The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (Actually, only the comparative and superlative show degrees.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative. The inflected suffixes -er and -est suffice to form most comparatives and superlatives, although we need -ier and -iest when a two-syllable adjective ends in y (happier and happiest); otherwise we use more and most when an adjective has more than one syllable.
Positive Comparative Superlative
Fast Faster Fastest
lovely lovelier Loveliest
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees:
Irregular Comparative and Superlative Forms
Good better Best
Bad worse Worst
Little less Least
much many, some more, Most
Far further Furthest
Be careful not to form comparatives or superlatives of adjectives which already express an extreme of comparison — unique, for instance — although it probably is possible to form comparative forms of most adjectives: something can be more perfect, and someone can have a fuller figure. People who argue that one woman cannot be more pregnant than another have never been nine-months pregnant with twins.Grammar's Response
Adjectives are used to indicate levels, degrees of intensity or comparison
high ____ base
higher ____ comparative
highest ____ superlative
When comparing two things always use the comparative. For example in a comparison between two people the correct usage would be: Bill is taller. Bill is the tallest would require that there be more than two people.
Be careful, also, not to use more along with a comparative adjective formed with -er nor to use most along with a superlative adjective formed with -est (e.g., do not write that something is more heavier or most heaviest).
The as — as construction is used to create a comparison expressing equality:
• He is as foolish as he is large.
• She is as bright as her mother.
MacFadyen, H. What Is An Adjectives?, (Online), (http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/adjectve.html)